CENTAUR

In Greek mythology, the centaurs (from Ancient Greek: Κ?νταυροι - Kentauroi) are a race of creatures composed of part human and part horse. In early Attic vase-paintings, they are depicted as the torso of a human joined at the (human's) waist to the horse's withers, where the horse's neck would be.

This half-human and half-animal composition has led many writers to treat them as liminal beings, caught between the two natures, embodied in contrasted myths, and as the embodiment of untamed nature, as in their battle with the Lapiths, or conversely as teachers, like Chiron.

The centaurs were usually said to have been born of Ixion and Nephele (the cloud made in the image of Hera). Another version, however, makes them children of a certain Centaurus, who mated with the Magnesian mares. This Centaurus was either the son of Ixion and Nephele (instead of the Centaurs) or of Apollo and Stilbe, daughter of the river god Peneus. In the latter version of the story his twin brother was Lapithus, ancestor of the Lapiths, thus making the two warring peoples cousins.

Centaurs were said to have inhabited the region of Magnesia and Mount Pelion in Thessaly, Mount Pholoe in Arcadia and the Malean peninsula in southern Laconia.

The Centaurs are best known for their fight with the Lapithae, caused by their attempt to carry off Hippodamia and the rest of the Lapith women, on the day of her marriage to Pirithous, king of the Lapithae, himself the son of Ixion. The strife among these cousins is a metaphor for the conflict between the lower appetites and civilized behavior in humankind. Theseus, a hero and founder of cities, who happened to be present, threw the balance in favour of the right order of things, and assisted Pirithous. The Centaurs were driven off or destroyed.[1][2][3] Another Lapith hero, Caeneus, who was invulnerable to weapons, was beaten into the earth by Centaurs wielding rocks and the branches of trees. Centaurs are thought of in many Greek myths as wild as untamed horses. Like the Titanomachy, the defeat of the Titans by the Olympian gods, the contests with the Centaurs typify the struggle between civilization and barbarism.

The Centauromachy is most famously portrayed in the Parthenon (Elgin Marbles) metopes by Phidias and a Renaissance-era sculpture by Michelangelo.

The most common theory holds that the idea of centaurs came from the first reaction of a non-riding culture, as in the Minoan Aegean world, to nomads who were mounted on horses. The theory goes that such riders would appear as half-man, half-animal (Bernal Diaz del Castillo reported that the Aztecs had this misapprehension about Spanish cavalrymen).[4] Horse taming and horseback culture arose first in the southern steppe grasslands of Central Asia, perhaps approximately in modern Kazakhstan.

The Lapith tribe of Thessaly, who were the kinsmen of the Centaurs in myth, were described as the inventors of horse-back riding by Greek writers. The Thessalian tribes also claimed their horse breeds were descended from the centaurs.

Of the various Classical Greek authors who mentioned centaurs, Pindar was the first who describes undoubtedly a combined monster. Previous authors (Homer, etc.) only use words such as Pheres (Beasts) that could also mean ordinary savage men riding ordinary horses. However, contemporaneous representations of hybrid centaurs can be found in archaic Greek art.

Lucretius in his 1st century BC philosophical poem On the Nature of Things denied the existence of centaurs based on their differing rate of growth. He states that at three years old horses are in the prime of their life while at three humans are still little more than babies, making hybrid animals impossible.[5]

Writer Robert Graves has speculated that the Centaurs of Greek myth were a dimly-remembered, pre-Hellenic fraternal earth cult who had the horse as a totem.[citation needed] A similar theory was incorporated into Mary Renault's The Bull from the Sea.

The Greek word kentauros could be etymologized as ken - tauros = "piercing bull". Another possible etymology can be "bulls slayer". Some say that the Greeks took the constellation of Centaurus, and also its name "piercing bull", from Mesopotamia, where it symbolized the god Baal who represents rain and fertility, fighting with and piercing with his horns the demon Mot who represents the summer drought. (In Greece, Mot became the constellation of Lupus.) Later in Greece, the constellation of Centaurus was reinterpreted as a man riding a horse, and linked to legends of Greece being invaded by tribes of horsemen from the north. The idea of a combined monster may have arisen as an attempt to fit the pictorial figure to the stars better.

Alexander Hislop in his book The Two Babylons theorized that the word is derived from the Semitic Kohen and "tor" (to go round) via phonetic shift the less prominent consonants being lost over time, with it developing into Khen Tor or Ken-Tor, and being transliterated phonetically into Ionian as Kentaur.

Though female centaurs, called Kentaurides, are not mentioned in early Greek literature and art, they do appear occasionally in later antiquity. A Macedonian mosaic of the C4th BC[6] is one of the earliest examples of the Centauress in art. Ovid[7] also mentions a centauress named Hylonome who committed suicide when her lover Cyllarus was killed in the war with the Lapiths.

In a description of a painting in Neapolis, the Greek rhetorician Philostratus the Elder describes them as sisters and wives of the male centaurs who live on Mount Pelion with their children.

"How beautiful the Centaurides are, even where they are horses; for some grow out of white mares, others are attached to chestnut mares, and the coats of others are dappled, but they glisten like those of horses that are well cared for. There is also a white female Centaur that grows out of a black mare, and the very opposition of the colours helps to produce the united beauty of the whole."[8]

In the Disney Classic Fantasia, during the Pastoral Symphony, some of the main characters are female centaurs. However, the Disney studio called them "Centaurettes" instead of Kentaurides.


ケンタウロス(Κ?νταυρο?, Kentauros; ラテン語形:Centaurus [ケンタウルス]) は、ギリシア神話に登場する怪物。馬の首から上が人間の上半身に置き換わったような姿をしている。センタウルあるいはセントールと表記されることもある。宮沢賢治の『銀河鉄道の夜』には「ケンタウル祭」という表現が出てくる。英語では Centaur [セントー] あるいは [セントーア]、フランス語では Centaur [サントール]、ドイツ語では Kentaur [ケンタウア]あるいは Zentaur [ツェンタウア] という(カタカナ表記が示す発音はあくまで近似であることに留意)。

イクシオンとヘーラーの姿をした雲ネペレーとの間に産まれたとも、その間の息子であるケンタウロスが牝馬と交わり産まれたともいわれる。テッサリアのペリオン山やアルカディア、エリスなどに住いでいたが、テッサリアのケンタウロスはペイリトオスとの戦争で住処を追われて、ペロポネソス半島南部のマレア岬に移動したともいわれる。

好色で酒好きの暴れ者だが、中には出自の異なるものおり、彼らは野蛮ではない。クロノスとピリュラの息子ケイローンは、医学の祖アキレウスなど数々の英雄を教育した賢者として知られ、また不死であった。シレノスととねりこの精であるニュンペーの息子ポロスも人格者である。

ケンタウロス族は戦いにおいてしばしば弓矢を使うとされる。星座のいて座は弓矢を持ったケンタウロス(ギリシャ神話の設定ではケンタウロス族ではない)の姿から来ている。

ダンテの『神曲』「地獄篇」第十二曲では、生前、人を虐げた暴君たちを血の川において懲らしめる獄卒の役目を果たしている。ダンテとウェルギリウスはケイローンと言葉を交わし、ネッソスに道を案内してもらった。なお、この姿は東方の騎馬民族と戦ったギリシア人が、彼らを擬人化したものだと考えられる。

このように、ケンタウロスは乗馬文化を持たない者が騎馬民族を見て怪物と見間違い、生まれたのではないかと言われる。ケンタウロスの語源は「牛殺し」だと言われているので(「刺し貫く牡牛」だとする意見もある)、牛追いをしていた遊牧民なのかもしれない。

wiki

  • Yahoo!JAPAN・・・日本最大ポータルサイト
  • Google・・・検索エンジン世界最大
  • ミネラルファンデーションが気になったらがいいらしいよ

    お探しの茶のしずくについてお探しならです。

    資料請求は、自転車あさひについてです。

    いま人気のよかせっけんの情報について。必見です!

    よくあるのが、FXプライムの情報ですです。

    紹介されている、ベルーナの情報

    こちらが、ビーグレンの関連サイトのサイトです!

    必見のトクーの情報サイトです。

    利尻ヘアカラートリートメント情報はこちら紹介されています。

    みんなのFXならこちらを提供しています。関連リンク情報

    こちらのサイトではコラーゲン比較のサイト

    サスティならこちらのページはこちら

    エレクトーレの関連サイト分かりやすく解説しています。

    必見のこのサイトベルーナはこのサイト

    紹介されています。ヤジキタならこちら

    ビーグレン関連サイトへお越しください。

    今日おすすめなのは皇潤はこちらからです。

    引越し見積もり。のいい情報です。ぜひ行ってみて下さい。関連リンク

    ベルーナについてお役立てください!便利でよいコンテンツの揃っています。

    ビタナリッシュクリーム関連サイトです!

    茶のしずくについてのサイトが人気です。

    充実した楽天GORA関連ページのサイトです

    DHCの情報が充実へどうぞ。必見の

    よく話題になるのが、ベルーナの情報が満載のサイトです。

    どうぞ!こちらのサイトはマウスコンピューターについておすすめ

    トクーのサイトサイトだと思います

    情報を提供中です。こちらのサイトではポリピュアの様々な情報

    銀座カラーの情報こちらが便利と評判です。

    要チェック!大和ハウジング情報はココのサイトです。

    ところで、以下のサイトは便利な情報が紹介されております。フェブリナ情報

    プラセンタ100の必見サイトですね!

    人気がある神戸クリニックについてはこちらです。

    ベルーナ関連ページへどうぞ!

    ベルーナの情報サイトはこちら。是非いってみて下さい。